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Fundamentals of Particle Technology - support pages
Chapter 3 Fluid flow in porous media
Fluid flow, porosity & packing links - links


Answers to problems:
Q1
(i): correct answer is (b)
(ii): correct answer is (c)
(iii): correct answer is (a)
(iv): correct answer is (c)
(v): correct answer is (c)
(vi): correct answer is (c)
(vii): The Kozeny-Carman equation is valid because The Modified Reynolds number is less than 2 - see the equation summary on page 27.

Q2
(i): correct answer is (a)
(ii): correct answer is (a)
(iii): No, The Modified Reynolds Number is greater than 2; so, there is a degree of turbulence within the bed that is too significant to use a laminar flow equation and expect it to provide a reasonable estimate of the pressure drop.
(iv): correct answer is (b) - i.e. the superficial velocity over the porosity, see equation (3.1)
(v): correct answer is (a)
(vi): correct answer is (b)
(vii): The Kozeny-Carman equation provides pressure drop due to viscous flow of fluid over the particles within the bed - you still have this effect BUT there is an additional energy loss (i.e. pressure drop) due to eddies and turbulence within the bed. So, the real pressure drop will be higher than provided by the Kozeny-Carman equation.

(viii): correct answer is (a) - coming from pressure is depth x density x g. This will be the pressure needed to raise the fluid to the top of the column, the pressure drop calculation is the dynamic pressure drop due to friction as the fluid flows. You will need to add the two pressures together. In this case the static pressure is negligible - it isn't always!


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